Curcumin, a yellow pigment extracted from rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa (turmeric), has been widely used as food additive and also as a herbal medicine throughout Asia. The present study was designed to study the pharmacological, biochemical and neurochemical effects of daily administration of curcumin to rats subjected to chronic unpredictable stress. Curcumin treatment (20 and 40 mg/kg, ., 21 days) significantly reversed the chronic unpredictable stress-induced behavioral (increase immobility period), biochemical (increase monoamine oxidase activity) and neurochemical (depletion of brain monoamine levels) alterations. The combination of piperine ( mg/kg, ., 21 days), a bioavailability enhancer, with curcumin (20 and 40 mg/kg, ., 21 days) showed significant potentiation of its anti-immobility, neurotransmitter enhancing (serotonin and dopamine) and monoamine oxidase inhibitory (MAO-A) effects as compared to curcumin effect per se . This study provided a scientific rationale for the use of curcumin and its co-administration with piperine in the treatment of depressive disorders
Resistance testing should be obtained to optimize the initial ART regimen. The increasing incidence of transmission of antiretroviral resistance  argues for resistance testing at baseline in all HIV-infected patients, including those who are acutely infected. Antiretroviral drug resistance mutations are more likely to be detected when genotypic resistance testing is performed at the time of recent infection . If information about the possible source person is available, history of antiretroviral drug resistance should be obtained to assist in selection of a regimen. In cases where there are multiple possible sources, as much information should be gathered as possible. All patients should be provided a copy of their baseline resistance test in the event that they defer therapy and initiate treatment later with a different provider.