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Algae can be used to produce ' green diesel ' (also known as renewable diesel, hydrotreating vegetable oil [60] or hydrogen-derived renewable diesel) [61] through a hydrotreating refinery process that breaks molecules down into shorter hydrocarbon chains used in diesel engines. [60] [62] It has the same chemical properties as petroleum-based diesel [60] meaning that it does not require new engines, pipelines or infrastructure to distribute and use. It has yet to be produced at a cost that is competitive with petroleum . [61] While hydrotreating is currently the most common pathway to produce fuel-like hydrocarbons via decarboxylation/decarbonylation, there is an alternative process offering a number of important advantages over hydrotreating. In this regard, the work of Crocker et al. [63] and Lercher et al. [64] is particularly noteworthy. For oil refining, research is underway for catalytic conversion of renewable fuels by decarboxylation . [65] As the oxygen is present in crude oil at rather low levels, of the order of %, deoxygenation in petroleum refining is not of much concern, and no catalysts are specifically formulated for oxygenates hydrotreating. Hence, one of the critical technical challenges to make the hydrodeoxygenation of algae oil process economically feasible is related to the research and development of effective catalysts. [66] [67]

EPCA covers an impressive range of members. We are a diverse community in terms of both our geographical spread and range of sectors represented within the petrochemical industry. EPCA proudly counts more than 700 chemical producers, suppliers, customers and service providers from 55 different countries among our membership.

“Petrochemical industry includes legal entities whose activities involve the chemical conversion of raw materials extracted from fossil and renewable hydrocarbons and their derivatives”

EPCA offers two categories of membership if your organisation falls into the above EPCA definition of the Petrochemical industry:

The most commonly used AAS in medicine are testosterone and its various esters (but most commonly testosterone undecanoate , testosterone enanthate , testosterone cypionate , and testosterone propionate ), [53] nandrolone esters (most commonly nandrolone decanoate and nandrolone phenylpropionate ), stanozolol , and metandienone (methandrostenolone). [1] Others also available and used commonly but to a lesser extent include methyltestosterone , oxandrolone , mesterolone , and oxymetholone , as well as drostanolone propionate , metenolone (methylandrostenolone), and fluoxymesterone . [1] Dihydrotestosterone (DHT; androstanolone, stanolone) and its esters are also notable, although they are not widely used in medicine. [54] Boldenone undecylenate and trenbolone acetate are used in veterinary medicine . [1]

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